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Cobalt (II) ions and nanoparticles induce macrophage retention by ROS-mediated down-regulation

May 21, 2018

Histological assessments of synovial tissues from patients with failed CoCr alloy hip prostheses demonstrate extensive infiltration and accumulation of macrophages, often loaded with large quantities of particulate debris. The resulting adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD) frequently leads to early joint revision. Inflammatory response starts with the recruitment of immune cells and requires the egress of macrophages from the inflamed site for resolution of the reaction. Metal ions (Co2+ and Cr3+) have been shown to stimulate the migration of T lymphocytes but their effects on macrophages motility are still poorly understood. To elucidate this, scientists studied in vitro and in vivo macrophage migration during exposure to cobalt and chromium ions and nanoparticles. We found that cobalt but not chromium significantly reduces macrophage motility. This involves increase in cell spreading, formation of intracellular podosome-type adhesion structures and enhanced cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). The formation of podosomes was also associated with the production and activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) and enhanced ECM degradation.

Researchers showed that these were driven by the down-regulation of RhoA signalling through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These novel findings reveal the key mechanisms driving the wear/corrosion metallic byproducts-induced inflammatory response at non-toxic concentration.

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